Rechargeable Zinc-Ion Battery Based on Choline Chloride-Urea Deep Eutectic Solvent

Recently, because of their cost effectiveness, high safety and environmental friendliness, zinc-ion batteries (ZIBs) are receiving enormous attention. Until now, aqueous-based ZIBs have been the focus of attention. However, the issues regarding hydrogen evolution, and zinc electrode passivation as well as dendrite formation limit their practical application. In this work, a biocompatible, stable and low-cost choline chloride/ urea (ChCl/urea) deep eutectic solvent is reported as an alternative electrolyte for rechargeable ZIBs based on delta-type manganese oxide (δ-MnO2) intercalation electrode. The behavior of the zinc electrode on stripping and deposition in ChCl/urea electrolyte was examined. Besides, the charge storage and charge-transfer characteristics of the battery was studied. The results showed that there was no sign of dendrite formation on the zinc electrode during long-term cycling. Consequently, the fabricated battery exhibited good electrochemical performance with the maximum specific capacity of 170 mAh/g and good cyclability. In addition, the system showed reversible plating/stripping of zinc (Zn) without dendrite formation and no passivation layer on the zinc electrode. Hence, the results confirmed the reversible intercalation of Zn from the deep eutectic solvent ChCl/urea into the δ-MnO2 electrode. Overall, the proposed electrolyte shows good promise for Zn/δ-MnO2 battery system.

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